Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Introduction
  • Albert Einstein is the most famous scientist of the 20th century. The German-born physicist, best known for his special and general theories of relativity, emigrated to USA to escape Hitler's genocide. The world's most famous equation, E = mc2, was developed by him. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - childhood
  • Albert Einstein was born into a Jewish family in Ulm, Germany on 14 March 1879. His father, Hermann Einstein, is a failed businessman moving from place to place in search of a profitable business. His mother was Pauline. In 1880, financial troubles forced the family to move to Munich,Germany. Albert Einstein did not talk until the age of three, but later in his adolescent years, he was curious about nature and physical phenomena. Two “wonders” deeply influenced young Einstein. The first was a pocket compass his father showed him when he was just five years old. Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move. Einstein was 12 when the second wonder came - a math book by- Euclid called 'Elements'. Max Talmud, a family friend, gave the young Einstein popular books on science, math and philosophy. Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements influenced Einstein's young mind, putting him on a fabled journey of curiosity and experimentation.
  • Another business failure forced the Einstein family move to Milan,Italy, and a few months later, to Pavia,Italy. In Italy, young Einstein wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field". In 1895, sixteen-year-old Einstein took the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich. Though he did exceptionally well in in physics and mathematics, his poor performance in French made him fail the exam. So, he attended the Aargau Cantonal School in Aarau, Switzerland. In 1896 he renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service. Later, he enrolled in the four-year mathematics and physics course at the Zurich Polytechnic and graduated in 1900 with average grades.

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Personal life
  • Einstein married Mileva Marić, his classmate at Zurich Polytechnic, in 1903. The couple had two sons - Hans Albert and Eduard. Einstein later married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919. In 1936, Elsa Einstein died of kidney problems

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Early career
  • Einstein took Swiss citizenship 1901. Financially, 1901-02 was Einstein's worst year - his father's business went bankrupt and he could not get any job. He survived on meagre income he got by tutoring children. Einstein luckily got a job in 1902 in Bern, Switzerland at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property (patent office) as a technical expert third-class with an annual salary of 3500 Swiss Francs and he was promoted to be technical expert second-class, with an annual salary of 4500 Swiss Francs in 1906. In Bern, Einstein started a discussion group ("The Olympia Academy") to discuss science and philosophy.

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Scientific career
  • In 1901, Einstein's paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published. He was awarded a doctorate by the University of Zurich for dissertation, "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions" The year 1905 has been Einstein's annus mirabilis ('miracle year'), as he published four groundbreaking papers - on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy. And the fourth noted an equivalence between energy and mass described by the most famous equation in all of physics, E=mc2. In 1909, he quit the patent office and took a teaching position at the University of Zurich. He became a full professor at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911. In 1914, he returned to Germany after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics and a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Theory of relativity
  • If you reached the speed of light, wouldn't the light waves seem stationery to you? Among other things, he pictured lightning striking at both ends of a moving train. A person on the embankment might see the strikes as simultaneous, but to someone on the speeding train they would appear to have happened at different moments. Because the train is speeding forward, the light from the strike at the front of the train would reach him a moment before the light from the strike at the back of the train. From that he realized that simultaneity is relative to your state of motion, and from that he came up with the idea that there is no such thing as absolute time. Time is relative. Hence the special theory of relativity.The special theory of relativity (1905) developed from Einstein’s acceptance that the speed of light is the same in all REFERENCE FRAMES, irrespective of their relative motion. It deals with nonaccelerating reference frames, and is concerned primarily with electric and magnetic phenomena and their propagation in space and time. The general theory (1916) was developed primarily to deal with GRAVITATION and
    involves accelerating reference frames. In 1915 he published his general theory of relativity. Einstein had calculated that, based on his theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. Two teams observed the solar eclipse of May 29, 1919 from two locations (The island of Principe, off the coast of West Africa, and Sobral, Brazil) Einstein's prediction was confirmed by observations made during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919. his special theory of relativity which included his formulation of the equivalence of mass and energy (E = mc2)

    Einstein’s mass-energy relation Relationship between MASS (m)
    and ENERGY (E) in ALBERT EINSTEIN’s special theory of RELATIVITY, expressed E
    = mc2, where c equals 186,000 mi/second (300,000 km/second), the speed

    of LIGHT

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Nobel Prize
  • In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany forced Einstein to take residence in USA and renounced his German citizenship. In 1933 he took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - Letter for atom bomb
  • In 1939 Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, pointing out the possibility of making "extremely powerful bombs of a new type' using nuclear chain reactions. President Roosevelt decided to initiate a research and development project (codenamed 'the Manhattan Project') that resulted in producing the atomic bombs during World War II. USA became the only country to successfully develop an atomic bomb during World War II. Two atom bombs were used, one each on Hiroshima, Japan and Nagasaki, Japan, bringing swift and sudden closure to the World War II
  • Albert Einstein
    Old Grove Rd.
    Nassau Point
    Peconic, Long Island

    August 2nd, 1939

    F.D. Roosevelt,
    President of the United States,
    White House
    Washington, D.C.

    Some recent work by E.Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of the Administration. I believe therefore that it is my duty to bring to your attention the following facts and recommendations:
    In the course of the last four months it has been made probable—through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America—that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future.
    This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable—though much less certain—that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air.
    The United States has only very poor ores of uranium in moderate quantities. There is some good ore in Canada and the former Czechoslovakia, while the most important source of uranium is Belgian Congo.
    In view of this situation you may think it desirable to have some permanent contact maintained between the Administration and the group of physicists working on chain reactions in America. One possible way of achieving this might be for you to entrust with this task a person who has your confidence and who could perhaps serve in an inofficial capacity. His task might comprise the following:
    a) to approach Government Departments, keep them informed of the further development, and put forward recommendations for Government action, giving particular attention to the problem of securing a supply of uranium ore for the United States;
    b) to speed up the experimental work, which is at present being carried on within the limits of the budgets of University laboratories, by providing funds, if such funds be required, through his contacts with private persons who are willing to make contributions for this cause, and perhaps also by obtaining the co-operation of industrial laboratories which have the necessary equipment.
    I understand that Germany has actually stopped the sale of uranium from the Czechoslovakian mines which she has taken over. That she should have taken such early action might perhaps be understood on the ground that the son of the German Under-Secretary of State, von Weizsäcker, is attached to the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin where some of the American work on uranium is now being repeated.
    Yours very truly,
    Albert Einstein

    Einstein's Biography - Life History & information for kids
  • Einstein's Biography - later life
  • Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Israel's Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of Israel, but Einstein politely declined the offer. On 18 April 1955, at the age of 76, Albert Einstein died in Princeton, New Jersey. His brain was removed and dissected. Parts of his brain were preserved at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

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